Realistic verification of manufacturing processes  Step I

Project time: 2011 – 2014

Budget: 12 600 000 SEK

Funding: FFI – Strategic Vehicle Research and Innovation

It is a key issue for the automotive manufacturing industry to sense, and to have the ability to act on changes on the market with respect to environmentally friendly and lightweight products

Special concerns relate to enhanced product performance and the need to reduce fuel consumption; the latter need is directly linked to reduced emissions and smarter environmental impact. A key enabling technology to accomplish this is to exploit advanced materials, processing and machining via virtual simulation technology. Indeed, there is a need to enhance the manufacturing via capable, cost-efficient, and robust simulation tools for specific operations of the production processing chains. In the project we address a couple of key issues related to realistic verification of manufacturing processes based on virtual simulation tools. The issues involve material modelling, material science, experimental and system oriented perspectives of manufacturing processes. On the one hand, the issues relate to simulation of the machinability of heterogeneous cast iron materials and, on the other hand, issues relate to a system oriented formulation of the heat assisted processes of press quenching, used to control distortion of case hardened crown wheels. We thus focused a few steps towards the ultimate goal of providing virtual tools where all manufacturing processes can be tested virtually in a realistic manner. As to heat assisted forming processes, we develop a methodology to analyze how various properties and parameters influence the distortion during press quenching of crown wheels. Distortion in crown wheels may cause excessive grinding, assembly problems,unfavorable load distribution, continuous noise of parts in service and even scrapping. The unsystematic distortion is due to non-uniformity in the steel properties and processing conditions and is a major concern for gear manufactures. To obtain realistic quenching characteristics, to be used for process simulation, a number of experiments are carried out on an industrial press quenching machine. Based on the experimentally obtained quenching characteristics the press quenching process is simulated by FEM. A prediction tool for how the press quenching operation affect important geometrical features for a crown wheel has been developed. The tool is based on 24 FEM-simulations where the steel hardenability and press forces were varied according to DoE-plan. From the simulations data was extracted and used for creating linear regression models for the prediction of crown wheel geometry after press quenching. The regression models was then tuned with data extracted from physical DoE-experiments performed at Scania. To characterize machinability of heterogeneous cast iron materials, we identified an innovation agenda, comprising the current state of the art machining simulation methodology along with research issues of numerical simulation and experimental. The following main components define the agenda: • virtual simulation strategy for 2D cast iron machining • machining experimental associated with virtual simulation of orthogonal cutting • model parameter identification strategy • prototype tool for making predictions of machinability of the work piece material.To arrive at a predictive method (and tool) the microstructure for range of cast iron has been considered in the agenda. Please note that the microstructure can be varied with respect to cast iron nodularity using virtual testing, whereby the complete range from “gray iron” to CGI and nodular cast iron” are handled. The crucial material modeling development in the agenda has been made related to: “consistent heat generation”, “modeling ductile fracture and damage” related to chip formation. Different model assumptions have been developed due to computational robustness, on the one hand, and, on the other, hand predictive model capability. A 2D test describing a 2D machining situation, named the “sliced cylinder” concept, was developed along with the model parameter identification strategy. Based on the prototype tool we carry out predictions of cutting forces for a class of cast iron. Please note the predicted qualitative reduction of cutting force as the cutting speed is increased. We also note the increase of cutting force with cutting depth as well as with nodularity approaching the CGI-type. The message from the predictions is that it is possible to make virtual variations in the cast iron materials and to make qualitative judgments of cast iron machinability.

Participating researcher(s)



Similar projects

Virtual PaintShop – Simulation of Oven Curing

The paintshop is often a bottleneck in production and the processes are fine-tuned based on testing on numerous prototypes. To meet the future demands there is a great need to improve the product preparation process. The aim is to develop methods, techniques and software, and supporting measurement methodology, for simulation of paint curing in IR and convective ovens. The goal is to assist the industry to further develop and optimize their surface treatment to be more energy and cost efficient; to have a shorter lead time in product development; and to give a higher product quality.

2016 – 2019

Virtual PaintShop – Simulation of Oven Curing

Dense-Arc joining of hybrid thermoplastic composite-metal structures (DENSARC)

The aim with the project is to test a new method to join thermoplastic composite to metal in a lap joint by using a focused TIG arc, as a heat source, to heat the metal side just enough so that the composite melts and join to the metal. The method gives single sided access, no need for additional filler material and makes invisible joints possible. The objective is to have a joining method that is robust, gives high productivity and high quality as well as cost advantages.

2012 – 2013

Streamlined Modeling and Decision Support for Fact-based Production Development (StreaMod)

The integration of data management systems, simulation software and optimization algorithms have been shown to increase throughput in existing production but also allow expanded use of virtual tools in the preparation phases. This in turn leads to shorter development times for new production systems and products. The project has also contributed to greater understanding and concrete improvements in the processes of collecting and assure the quality of production data. This in turn increases the quality in both simulations and direct data-driven analyzes.

2013 – 2017

Sintered parts with high static loading capacity

The project has confirmed the hypothesis that tailoring of the tempering is a functioning means of making PM steel sustainable towards high static loading in potential automotive applications. The project has also developed further understanding about mechanisms that could be responsible for static loading sensitivity with respect to creep/relaxation at slightly elevated temperature. The results relate to sustainable manufacturing processes, the basis being that powder compaction and sintering is an energy efficient way with high raw materials utilization.

2012 – 2013

Sustainable Manufacture of Future Engine Components

The project has addressed challenges in casting and realisation of new cast irons with improved properties and machinability, decision making regarding manufacturing strategies and machinability of materials. Silicon-alloyed compacted graphite iron (CGI) has been demonstrated av new alternative for future engine components. New simulation technique for assessing manufacturing strategies has been introduced. Generic know ledge has been developed w hen it concerns w ork material machinability w ith specific reference to combined materials in advanced components.

2012 – 2015

Emerging digital technologies and their applicability as picking support in materials handling

In material handling processes, such as kitting and sequencing, which are used in the automotive industry to supply the assembly with a wide and growing range of component variants, the picking information system is central design aspect. Given the developments in digitization, the purpose of this concept study is to evaluate the potential of digital technology to support materials handling work in production systems.

2017 – 2017

Compact and energy efficient transmissions – control and prediction of functional surface behavior

The overall objective of the project was to: • Develop simulation methodology for drive simulation of transmissions with given shape, surface topography and surface structure, - for more robust and better prediction of the efficiency and life of gear contacts in gearboxes. • Through experimental evaluation and characterization, support and verify the developed simulation technology • Through experimental evaluation and characterization, further verifying the potential of using the correct surface texture, e.g. honing, and right-handed gear in heavy-duty transmissions.

2016 – 2018

Automotive components from renewable resources with good barrier properties and tailored biodegradability, for interior applications

Our hypothesis is that advanced, lightweight, multi-layer-structured composites with good barrier properties and tailored biodegradability can be produced by combining bio-based thermoplastic with special additives and pulp fiber mats. This material is free from fossil raw materials, sustainable, fire and impact-resistant and suitable for interior components in vehicles.

2012 – 2013

PADOK – Study Visit to India 2016

With globalization and other megatrends as demographic changes and climate change, more knowledge is needed regarding production in an international perspective. PADOK Study Visit in India 2016 have given an increased knowledge regarding how production is conducted in India, some of the challenges producing companies in that region is facing and how Swedish companies interested in investing in production in India could act to establish themselves in the region.

2016 – 2016

Geometry optimized adhesive joining for sustainable production

"Geometry Optimised adhesive joining for sustainable production” in Swedish (Geometri Optimerad LimFogning för hållbar produktion, "GOLF") is a project within the Swedish research program FFI for Sustainable production. It has as its mission to develop technology and methods to get the right amount of adhesive on the right place. The drivers behind this are the overall strive to decrease weight in vehicles and moving machines to minimize the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere.

2013 – 2015

Search Next Previous Deselect Project manager URL Document Partner Calendar Place Close Menu Expand User Log out Profile